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26 Sarasvati and Drishadvati.png

Figure 26: Sarasvatī and Dṛṣadvatī as the northern and southern boundaries of Vara Pṛthivyā. 
North of Dṛṣadvatī is Kurukṣetra and South of Dṛṣadvatī is Kurujāṅgala Sahibi (Śiphā) collects all waters from Rajasthan in the south, leaving no scope for a Dṛṣadvatī to flow from south to north in this region. 

27 Apaya.png

Figure 27: Ṛgvedic Āpayā (Aitihāsic Āpagā) River flowing through Kurukṣetra.

28 Vipas Sutudri.png

Figure 28: Vipāś and Śutudrī. Their confluence can be seen. After expanding the territory upto Vipāś and Śutudrī (3rd Maṇḍala), Sudās engages with enemies in the Dāśarājña Battle at Paruṣṇī (Ravi River) further to the north-west.

29 Yamuna Amsumati.png

Figure 29: River Yamunā, also known as Aṃśumatī in its southern course. The probable location of the Battle of Yamunā has been indicated with Turvaśa-Yakṣu and Matsya territories marked.

30 Parushni.png

Figure 30: Paruṣṇī with the layout of the Dāśarājña Battle. The 10 clans who participated in this battle as well as their opponent Tṛtsu Bharatas face each other along the Paruṣṇī river, the western boundary of the domain of the Tṛtsu king Sudās.

31 IE Migrations.png

Figure 31: Approximate routes of the Indo-European Migrations.

32 Samvarana Bharata migrations.png

Figure 32: Expelled by the Tṛtsus (Pāñcālas) the Pūrus (Samvaraṇa-Bharata) migrated from Vara Pṛthivyā.

33 Vibali Vitasta Marudvrdha.png

Figure 33: The rivers Vibālī, Vitastā and Marudvṛdhā as the three channels of Jhelum

34 Sindhu River evolution.png

Figure 34: Sindhu flowed in an eastern channel during the gvedic period, after it enters the plains after flowing through the Pothohar plateau.

35 Sarayu.png

Figure 35: Sarayu as Haro River, an eastern tributary of Sindhu.

36 Migration of Ikshwakus East and West.png

Figure 36: Migration of the Manu-People from the southern sea (Gujarat) along Sarasvatī / Sarayu to the Ancestral Sarayu. From there, the Western Ikṣvākus (Tṛkṣis) migrate to the western Sarayu (Haro) and the Eastern Ikṣvākus migrate to the eastern Gomatī (Gomti) and Sarayū (Ghaghara)

37 Kosala-Kekaya Path.png

Figure 37: the path from Kosala to Kekaya mentioned in Rāmāyaṇa (VRM 2.62.10-14) passing through Hastinapura and Kurujāṅgala with Pāñcālas (Tṛtsus) living in Kurujāṅgala. This geography and path are possible only in the Ṛgveda 10th Maṇḍala period.

38 Eastern Ikswaku Migration.png

Figure 38: Migration of the Eastern Ikṣvākus from the Ancestral Sarayu (Sarasvatī) to the Aitihāsic Sarayū (Ghaghara)

39 Pancala Migration.png

Figure 39: The Tṛtsu Bharatas (Pāñcālas) migrating from Vara Pṛthivyā (Kurukṣetra) to Kurujāṅgala (as recorded in Rāmāyaṇa) and finally to their location to the east of Gaṅgā with capitals Kāmpilya and Ahicchatra (as recorded in the Mahābhārata).

40 Sixteen Lands of Ahuras.png

Figure 40: The probable locations of the Sixteen Lands of the Ahuras mentioned in the Avestan text Vendidād.

41 Urjayanti and Sarapas.png

Figure 41: Ūrjayantī is Sarasvatī (Sarsuti) and Sarapas is Ghaggar. I identify it with the Śaradaṇḍā River mentioned in Rāmāyaṇa in a journey from Ayodhyā to Kekaya capital Girivraja.

42 Shipha Anjasi Kulisi.png

Figure 42: The rivers of (Aitihāsic) Kurujāṅgala region: Śiphā, Añjasī, Kuliśī and Vīrapatnī. Śiphā is the Sahibi River. Añjasī is Yavyāvatī (western channel of Yamunā, Kuliśī is Dṛṣadvatī and Vīrapatnī is Sarasvatī.

43 Kubha and Krumu.png

Figure 43: Kubhā (Kabul River) and Krumu (Kurram), two western tributaries of Sindhu (Indus). Kubhā was the primary access to Afghanistan for the Ṛgvedic People. The source of Krumu too leads to Afghanistan.

44 Migration of Pakthas and Bhalanas.png

Figure 44: The migration of the Pakthas and Bhalānas from Asiknī (Chenab) River after the Dāśarājña Battle. Pakthas migrated along the Kubhā (Kabul) River. Bhalānas migrated into Baluchistan.

45 Anitabha.png

Figure 45: The river Anitabhā is identified as the Kondia River.

46 Ikswakus to Ancestral Sarayu and beyond.png

Figure 46: Ikṣvāku migration to Ancestral Sarayu, Gomatī , Vanāyu and to western Sarayu (Haro River)

47 Rgvedic and Aitihaic Gomati.png

Figure 47: The Ṛgvedic Gomatī (Gomal), Ancestral Sarayu (Sarasvatī), Aitihāsic Gomatī (Gomti) and Aitihāsic Sarayū (Ghaghara) to the east in Uttar Pradesh. Ikṣvāku migrations are highlighted in yellow.

48 Mehatnu.png

Figure 48: Sindhu flowed in an eastern channel during the Ṛgvedic period. It enters the plains after flowing through the Pothohar plateau.

49 Arjikiya and Sushoma.png

Figure 49: During the 4th Maṇḍala Period, the rivers Ārjīkīyā and Suṣomā were tributaries of Sarayu joining it through the Nandna Kas. During the 8th Maṇḍala Period, Ārjīkīyā and Suṣomā joined Sindhu through the rivers Sil and Sohan.

50 Rasa.png

Figure 50: The nine  Ṛgvedic references to Rasā all point to the river Sindhu (Indus River). The map also shows the Trans-Himalayan Trade Route and the Uttarāpatha Trade Route. The probable meeting place of Sarama and the Paṇis is shown on this map.

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