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51 Trstama Susartu Rasa Svetya.png

Figure 51: Tṛṣṭāmā (Shyok River), Susartū (Shigar River), Rasā (Indus) and Śvetyā (Gilgit River)

52 Suvastu and Gauri.png

Figure 52: The Suvāstu (Swat River) joining the Kubhā (Kabul) River. Gaurī (Panjkora) is the tributary of Suvāstu.

53 Svetayavari Svetya.png

Figure 53: Śvetayāvarī (Śvetyā) the Gilgit River, a northern tributary of Sindhu

54 Asmanvati.png

Figure 54: Aśmanvatī identified with the Kunar River in Afghanistan. Aśmavraja is a place name identifiable with the mountainous terrains of eastern Afghanistan.

55 Iksvakus to Aitihasic Sarayu.png

Figure 55: Migration of the Ikṣvākus from the Ikṣvāku Homeland along the Ancestral Sarayu (Sarasvatī) to the eastern (Aitihāsic) Sarayū.

56 Urnavati, Silimavati.png

Figure 56: Ūrṇāvatī (Zanskar River) and Sīlamāvatī (Suru River) as the left bank tributaries of Sindhu (Vājinīvatī) in its upper course in the Ladakh province of India.

57 Land Trade Network.png

Figure 57: The emerging land and sea trade networks.

58 Revised Rgvedic Chronology.png

Figure 58: The Ṛgvedic Maṇḍala Chronology is aligned with the Early and Mature phases of the Harappan (SSC) civilization. Early Ṛgveda (Maṇḍalas: 6, 3 & 8) falls in the Early Harappan Phase. The Middle (4, 2) and Late Ṛgveda (5, 8, 9, 10) fall in the Mature Harappan Phase. The Late Harappan Phase is aligned with Kurukṣetra War and its aftermath.

59 PGW.png

Figure 59: The geographical span of PGW: South-West Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, North Rajasthan, Pakistan bordering Rajasthan; spread along the rivers the Yamuna, Sarasvatī (Ghaggar-Hakra), Sutlej, and Ganga.

60 OCP.png

Figure 60: OCP culture (2600-1700 BCE) growth snapshots at 1900 BCE and 1700 BCE

61 Kosala and Videha.png

Figure 61: The Aitihāsic Kāśī-Kosala and Videha Region related to king Rāma of Rāmāyaṇa. The adjacent Janapadas like Kanyakubja, Cedi, Vatsa, Kāruṣa, Maladā, Malla, and Magadha are shown in the neighbourhood.

62 The Five Peoples.png

Figure 62: The Five-Peoples of the Ṛgveda and their probable settlements in the Middle and Late Ṛgvedic periods juxtaposed with the Sindhu Sarasvatī Civilization Mature Phase (2600 – 1900 BCE).The Ikṣvākus were already there in most of the places before the Five-Peoples reached these places.

63 Aitihasic Janapadas in Western Frontier.png

Figure 63: The Aitihāsic Janapadas mentioned in the western frontier regions of Ṛgveda watered by the rivers Kubhā (Kabul), Suvāstu (Swat), and Gaurī (Panjkora) and Aśmanvatī (Kunar).

64 Yamuna Sarasvati Region.png

Figure 64: Yamuna-Sarasvatī  Region

65 South of Yamuna Sarasvati Region.png

Figure 65: The south of the Yamunā Sarasvatī Region

66 Northwest of Yamuna Sarasvati Region.png

Figure 66: The northwest of the Yamuna Sarasvatī Region

67 Northwestern Rgvedic Horizon.png

Figure 67:The northwestern Ṛgvedic Horizon containing Śaryaṇāvat, Mūjavat, Gandharva and Aśmavraja regions.

68 Northern Rgvedic Horizon.png

Figure 68:The northern Ṛgvedic Horizon contains the upper course of Sindhu and its tributaries there.

69 Southern Rgvedic Horizon.png

Figure 69: The southern Ṛgvedic Horizon

70 Migration.png

Figure 70: The migrations of the Manu-People, Ikṣvākus, and Aiḷas (specifically the Tṛtsu-Bharata branch of the Bharata branch of the Pūrus, one among the Five People constituting the Aiḷas).

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